First Book of Homilies Homily II - Of the misery of all mankind The Holy Ghost, in writing the Holy Scripture, is in nothing more diligent than to pull down man's vainglory and pride, which of all vices is most universally grafted in all mankind, even from the first infection of our first father Adam. And therefore we read in many places of Scripture, many notable lessons against this old rooted vice, to teach us the most commendable virtue of humility, how to know ourselves, and to remember what we be of ourselves. In the book of Genesis, Almighty God giveth us all a title and name in our great grandfather Adam, which ought to warn us all to consider what we be, whereof we be, from whence we came, and whither we shall go, saying thus, In the sweat of thy face shalt thou eat thy bread, till thou be turned again into the ground, for out of it wast thou taken, in as much as you are dust, to dust shall you be turned again (Genesis 3.19). Here (as it were in a glass) we may learn to know ourselves to be but ground, earth, and ashes, and that to earth and ashes we shall return. Also, the holy Patriarch Abraham did well remember this name and title, dust, earth, and ashes, appointed and assigned by God to all mankind: and therefore he calls himself by that name, when he makes his earnest prayer for Sodom & Gomorrah. And we read that Judith, Esther, Job, Jeremiah, with other holy men and women in the Old Testament, did use sackcloth, and to cast dust and ashes upon their heads, when they bewailed their sinful living (Judith 4.10-11, Job 42.6, Jeremiah 6.26). They called and cried to God, for help and mercy, with such a ceremony of sackcloth, dust, and ashes, that thereby they might declare to the whole world, what an humble and lowly estimation they had of themselves, and how well they remembered their name and title aforesaid, their vile corrupt frail nature, dust, earth, and ashes. The book of Wisdom also willing to pull down our proud stomachs, moves us diligently to remember our mortal and earthly generation, which we have all of him that was first made (Wisdom 7.1): and that all men, as well kings as subjects, come into this world, and go out of the same in like sort: that is, as of ourselves full miserable, as we may daily see. And Almighty God commanded his Prophet Esau to make a Proclamation, and cry to the whole world: and Esau asking, what shall I cry? The Lord answered, Cry, that all flesh is grass, and that all the glory thereof, is but as the flower of the field, when the grass is withered, the flower falleth away, when the wind of the Lord blows upon it. The people surely is grass, the which drieth up, and the flower fadeth away (Isaiah 40.6-7). And the holy man Job, having in himself great experience of the miserable and sinful estate of man, does open the same to the world in these words; Man (saith he) that is borne of a woman, living but a short time, is full of manifold miseries, he springeth up like a flower, and fadeth again, vanishes away as it were a shadow, and never continueth in one state. And dost thou judge it meet (O Lord) to open thine eyes vpon such a one, and to bring him to judgement with thee? Who can make him clean, that is conceived of an unclean seed (Job 14.1-4), and all men of their illnesses, and natural propensity, be so universally given to sin, that (as the Scripture saith) God repented that ever he made man (Genesis 6.6). And by sin his indignation was so much provoked against, the world, that he drowned all the world with Noah's flood (except Noah himself, and his little household, Genesis 7.11-24). It is not without great cause, that the Scripture of God doeth so many times call all men here in this world by this word, earth, O thou earth, earth, earth, saith Jeremiah, hear the word of the Lord (Jeremiah 22.29). This our right name, calling, and title, earth, earth, earth, pronounced by the Prophet, sheweth what we be indeed, by whatsoever other style, title, or dignity, men do call us. Thus he plainly named us, who knoweth best, both what we be, and what we ought of right to be called. And thus he sends us forth, speaking by his faithful Apostle Saint Paul, All men, Jews and Gentiles, are under sin, there is none righteous, no not one: there is none that understands, there is none that seeks after God, they are all gone out of the way, they are all unprofitable, there is none that does good, no not one: their throat is an open sepulchre, with their tongues they have used craft and deceit, the poison of serpents is under their lips, their mouth is full of cursing and bitterness, their feet are swift to shed blood, destruction and wretchedness are in their ways, and the way of peace have they not known: there is no fear of God before their eyes. And in another place, Saint Paul writes thus, God hath wrapped all nations in unbelief, that he might have mercy on all (Romans 11.32). The Scripture shutteth up all under sun, that the promise by the faith of Jesus Christ, should bee given unto them that believe (Galatians 3.22). Saint Paul in many places paints us out in our colours, calling us the children of the wrath of God (Ephesians 2.3), when we be borne: saying also that we cannot think a good thought of ourselves, much less can we say well, or do well of ourselves. And the Wise man saith in the book of Proverbs, The just man falls seven times a day (Proverbs 24.16). The most tried and approved man Job, feared all his works. Saint John the Baptist being sanctified in his mother's womb, and praised before he was borne, being called an Angel, and great before the Lord, filled even from his birth with the Holy Ghost, the preparer of the way for our Saviour Christ (Luke 1.15, 76), and commended of our Saviour Christ to be more than a Prophet, and the greatest that ever was borne of a woman: yet he plainly granteth, that he had need to be washed of Christ, he worthily extolled and glorified his Lord and master Christ, and humbleth himself as unworthy to unbuckle his shoes (Matthew 3.11, 14), and giveth all honour and glory to God. So doth Saint Paul both oft and evidently confesses himself, that he was of himself, ever giving (as a most faithful servant) all praise to his master and Saviour. So doth blessed Saint John the Evangelist, in the name of himself, and of all other holy men (be they never so just) make this open confession: If we say we have no sin, we deceive ourselves, and the truth is not in us: If we acknowledge our sin, God is faithful and just to forgive our sins and to cleanse us from all unrighteousness: If we say we have not sinned, we make him a liar, and his word is not in us (1 John 1.8-10). Wherefore, the wise man in the book called Ecclesiastes, makes this true and general confession, There is not one just man upon the earth that does good, and sins not (Ecclesiastes 7.20). And David is ashamed of his sin, but not to confess his sin (Psalms 51). How oft, how earnestly, and lamentably does he desire God’s great mercy for his great offences, and that God should not enter into judgement with him (Psalms 143.2)? And again, how well weighs this holy man his sins, when he confesseth that they be so many in number, and so hid, and hard to understand, that it is in a manner impossible to know, utter, or number them? Wherefore, he having a true, earnest, and deep contemplation and consideration of his sins, and yet not coming to the bottom of them, he makes supplication to God, to forgive him his privy, secret, hid sins: to the knowledge of which we cannot attain unto (Psalms 19.12, 40.12). He weighs rightly his sins from the original root and spring head, perceiving inclinations, provocations, stirrings, stingings, buds, branches, degrees, infections, tastes, feelings, and sent of them to continue in him still. Wherefore he saith, mark and behold, I was conceived in sin (Psalms 51.5): He says not sin, but in the plural number, sins, for as much as out of one (as a fountain) springs all the rest. Our Saviour Christ says, there is none good, but God (Mark 10.18, Luke 18.19): and that we can do nothing that is good without him, nor no man can come to the father but by him (John 15.5, 14.6). He commands us also to say, that we be unprofitable servants, when we have done all that we can do (Luke 17.10). He preferred the penitent Publican, before the proud, holy, and glorious Pharisee (Luke 18.14). He calls himself a Physician, but not to them that be whole, but to them that be sick (Matthew 9.12), and have need of his salve for their sore. He teaches us in our prayers, to acknowledge ourselves sinners, and to ask for righteousness and deliverance from all evils, at our heavenly Fathers hand. He declares that the sin of our own hearts, do defile our own selves. He teaches that an evil word or thought deserves condemnation, affirming that we shall give account for every idle word (Matthew 12.36). He saith, He came not to save, but the sheep that were utterly lost, and cast away (Matthew 15.24). Therefore few of the proud, just, learned, wise, perfect, and holy Pharisees, were saved by him, because they justified themselves by their counterfeit holiness before men. Wherefore (good people) let us beware of such hypocrisy, vain glory, and justifying of ourselves.